TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN
Individual Health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and proper sanitation. There is, therefore, a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene have been major causes of many diseases in developing countries. India is no exception to this. Prevailing High Infant Mortality Rate is also largely attributed to poor sanitation. It was in this context that the Total Sanitation Programme (CRSP) was launched in Thoothukudi District from 2003-04 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women.
The main objectives of the TSC are as under:
- Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.
- Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas.
- Generate felt demand for sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.
- Cover schools/ Anganwadis in rural areas with sanitation facilities and promote hygiene education and sanitary habits among students.
- Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies in sanitation.
- Eliminate open defecation to minimize risk of contamination of drinking water sources and food.
- Convert dry latrines to pour flush latrines, and eliminate manual scavenging practice, wherever in existence in rural areas.
Total Sanitation Campaign was started during the year 2003 in Thoothukudi District. So far
- 70,947 toilets were constructed against the approved number of 91637 rural household toilets.
- School toilets were constructed in 245 Schools against the planned 235 schools
- Toilets were constructed in 647 Anganwadi Centres
- NGP award received by 46 Panchayats
Construction of Individual Household Latrines:
A duly completed household sanitary latrine shall comprise of a Basic Low Cost Unit (without the super structure). All existing dry latrines in rural areas should be converted to pour flush latrines. The programme is aimed to cover all the rural families. Incentive as provided under the scheme may be extended to Below Poverty Line families, if the same is considered necessary for full involvement of the community. The construction of household toilets should be undertaken by the BPL household itself and on completion and use of the toilet by the BPL household, the cash incentive can be given to the BPL household in recognition of its achievement.
The unit cost of Individual Household Latrine (IHHL) under TSC is Rs. 3200/- . The incentive given to BPL households by the Central Government would be Rs.2200/ the State Government incentive would be Rs.1000/- and the beneficiary contribution would be unchanged at Rs.300/-. The BPL household may also contribute to value addition to the basic unit at its own expense. All houses constructed for BPL families under Indira Awas Yojana shall variably be provided with a toilet under TSC .
School Sanitation & Hygiene Education:
The experience gained by children through use of toilets in school and sanitation education imparted by teachers would reach home and would also influence parents to adopt good sanitary habits. School Sanitation, therefore, forms an integral part of every TSC Project. Toilets in all types of Government Schools i.e. Primary, Upper Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary should be constructed. Emphasis should be given on toilets for Girls in Schools.
Funding for School Sanitation in a TSC Project is provided by the Central and State Government in the ratio of 70:30 for a unit cost of Rs.35,000/-.
Anganwadi Toilets :
In order to change the behaviour of the children from very early stage in life, it is essential that Anganwadis are used as a platform of behaviour change of the children as well as the mothers attending the Anganwadis. For this purpose each anganwadi should be provided with a baby friendly toilet. One toilet of unit cost upto Rs 8,000 can be constructed for each Anganwadi or Balwadi in the rural areas.